References Clinical Results Publication June 3, 2015, the 3 Year study of the investigational Argus II visual function results were published in Ophthalmology and the journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology: This paper presents full 1-year and 3-year clinical trial data from 30 subjects implanted with the Argus II System. In part, the conclusions state, “To our knowledge, this study is the largest and longest running clinical trial of a retinal prosthesis to date; as of September 1, 2014, the longest duration of implant was 7.2 years. The results in these 30 subjects indicate that the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System has an acceptable risk profile and is a beneficial therapy for profoundly blind patients with RP.” Ho AC, Humayun MS, Dorn JD, et al. Ophthalmology. 2015 Jul 7. [Epub ahead of print] The results of the clinical trial were published in the April 2012 edition of the American Academy of Ophthalmology: This study evaluated the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System in blind subjects with severe outer retinal degeneration. Thirty subjects were enrolled in the United States and Europe between June 6, 2007, and August 11, 2009. All subjects were followed up for a minimum of 6 months and up to 2.7 years. source: ophthalmology Julia Haller, MD, Ophthalmologist in Chief at the Wills Eye Institute presents a summaryof this publication: Humayun MS, Dorn JD, da Cruz L, Dagnelie G, Sahel JA, Stanga PE, Cideciyan AV, Duncan JL, Eliott D, Filley E, Ho AC, Santos A, Safran AB, Arditi A, Del Priore LV, Greenberg RJ. Doheny Eye Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. Interim Results from the International Trial of Second Sight's Visual Prosthesis. Ophthalmology Volume 119, Issue 4, 2012, Pages 779-788. Reference List: Ahuja AK, Behrend MR. The Argus II retinal prosthesis: factors affecting patient selection for implantation. Prog Retin Eye Res. Sep 2013;36:1-23. Ahuja AK, Dorn JD, Caspi A, et al. Blind subjects implanted with the Argus II retinal prosthesis are able to improve performance in a spatial-motor task. Br J Ophthalmol. Apr 2011;95(4):539-543. Ahuja AK, Yeoh J, Dorn JD, et al. Factors Affecting Perceptual Threshold in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Subjects. Transl Vis Sci Technol. Apr 2013;2(4):1. Arevalo JF, Choudhry N, Kozak I, KKESH Collaborative Retina Study Group. Wide-Field Retinal Imaging of Other Miscellaneous Retinal Diseases. InAtlas of Wide-Field Retinal Angiography and Imaging 2016 (pp. 241-254). Springer International Publishing. Arevalo JF, Al Rashaed S, Kahtani ES, et al. The Argus II retinal prosthesis in RP patients: surgical and functional outcomes from the KKESH Collaborative Retina Study Group [slide presentation]. [internet]. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins Medicine, Wilmer Eye Institute; 2015 Nov 15. 27 slides. Arevalo JF, Mura M, Al Rashaed S. The Argus II retinal prosthesis: surgical and functional outcomes in younger retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients [poster PO267; slide set]. In: American Academy of Ophthalmology 2015 annual meeting; 2015 Nov 14-17; Las Vegas (NV). American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO); 2015. Also available:http://aao.scientificposters.com. Barry MP, Dagnelie G. Use of the Argus II retinal prosthesis to improve visual guidance of fine hand movements. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Aug 2012;53(9):5095-5101. Barry MP, Dagnelie G. Hand-Camera Coordination Varies over Time in Users of the Argus((R)) II Retinal Prosthesis System. Front Syst Neurosci. 2016;10:41. Cunningham S, Tjan B, Bao P, Falabella P, Weiland J. Tactile-Evoked V1 responses in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Patients assessed with fMRI: A Case Study. J Vis. Sep 1 2015;15(12):359. Cunningham SI, Shi Y, Weiland JD, et al. Feasibility of Structural and Functional MRI Acquisition with Unpowered Implants in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Patients: A Case Study. Transl Vis Sci Technol. Dec 2015;4(6):6. da Cruz L, Coley BF, Dorn J, et al. The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis system allows letter and word reading and long-term function in patients with profound vision loss. Br J Ophthalmol. May 2013;97(5):632-636. de Juan E, Jr., Spencer R, Barale PO, da Cruz L, Neysmith J. Extraction of retinal tacks from subjects implanted with an epiretinal visual prosthesis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. Oct 2013;251(10):2471-2476. Dorn JD, Ahuja AK, Caspi A, et al. The Detection of Motion by Blind Subjects With the Epiretinal 60-Electrode (Argus II) Retinal Prosthesis. JAMA Ophthalmol. Feb 2013;131(2):183-189. Garcia S, Petrini K, Rubin GS, Da Cruz L, Nardini M. Visual and Non-Visual Navigation in Blind Patients with a Retinal Prosthesis. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0134369. Geruschat DR, Flax M, Tanna N, et al. FLORA: Phase I development of a functional vision assessment for prosthetic vision users. Clin Exp Optom. Feb 11 2015. Geruschat DR, Richards TP, Arditi A, et al. An analysis of observer-rated functional vision in patients implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System at three years. Clin Exp Optom. Jan 24 2016. Ghodasra DH, Chen A, Arevalo JF, et al. Worldwide Argus II implantation: recommendations to optimize patient outcomes. BMC Ophthalmol. 2016;16(1):52. Govare M, Korobelnik JF, Barale PO, et al. [Postoperative imaging after ARGUS(R) II epiretinal prosthesis implantation in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa]. J Fr Ophtalmol. Jan 2016;39(1):114-115. Ho AC, Humayun MS, Dorn JD, et al. Long-Term Results from an Epiretinal Prosthesis to Restore Sight to the Blind. Ophthalmology. Jul 7 2015. Humayun MS, Dorn JD, da Cruz L, et al. Interim results from the international trial of Second Sight's visual prosthesis. Ophthalmology. Apr 2012;119(4):779-788. Israelsen PE, Sadda SR, Dorn JD, Humayun MS, Olmos de Koo LC. Optomap Widefield Imaging of the Argus Ii Retinal Prosthesis in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa. Retin Cases Brief Rep. Dec 22 2015. Kotecha A, Zhong J, Stewart D, da Cruz L. The Argus II prosthesis facilitates reaching and grasping tasks: a case series. BMC Ophthalmol. 2014;14(1):71. Lauritzen TZ, Harris J, Mohand-Said S, et al. Reading visual braille with a retinal prosthesis. Front Neurosci. 2012;6:168. Luo YH, da Cruz L. The Argus((R)) II Retinal Prosthesis System. Prog Retin Eye Res. Jan 2016;50:89-107. Luo YH, Davagnanam I, daCruz L. MRI brain scans in two patients with the argus II retinal prosthesis. Ophthalmology. Aug 2013;120(8):1711-1711 e1718. Luo YH, Zhong JJ, da Cruz L. The use of Argus(R) II retinal prosthesis by blind subjects to achieve localisation and prehension of objects in 3-dimensional space. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. Nov 2015;253(11):1907-1914. Montezuma SR, Tang PH, van Kuijk FJ, Drayna P, Koozekanani DD. Implantation of the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis in an Eye With Short Axial Length. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. Apr 1 2016;47(4):369-371. Perez Fornos A, Sommerhalder J, da Cruz L, et al. Temporal properties of visual perception on electrical stimulation of the retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. May 2012;53(6):2720-2731. Rachitskaya AV, Yuan A. Argus II retinal prosthesis system: An update. Ophthalmic Genet. Feb 8 2016:1-7. Rizzo S, Belting C, Cinelli L, Allegrini L. Visual field changes following implantation of the Argus II retinal prosthesis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. Nov 30 2014. Rizzo S, Belting C, Cinelli L, et al. The Argus II Retinal Prosthesis: Twelve-Month Outcomes from a Single-Study Center. Am J Ophthalmol. Feb 19 2014. Sabbah N, Authie CN, Sanda N, Mohand-Said S, Sahel JA, Safran AB. Importance of Eye Position on Spatial Localization in Blind Subjects Wearing an Argus(R) II Retinal Prosthesis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Nov 20 2014. Seider MI, Hahn P. Argus II retinal prosthesis malrotation and repositioning with intraoperative optical coherence tomography in a posterior staphyloma. Clin Ophthalmol. 2015;9:2213-2216. Stronks HC, Barry MP, Dagnelie G. Electrically elicited visual evoked potentials in Argus II retinal implant wearers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Jun 2013;54(6):3891-3901. Stronks HC, Barry MP, Dagnelie G. Electrically evoked electroretinograms and pupil responses in Argus II retinal implant wearers. Doc Ophthalmol. Jan 7 2016. Stronks HC, Dagnelie G. The functional performance of the Argus II retinal prosthesis. Expert Rev Med Devices. Jan 2014;11(1):23-30. Vaidya A, Borgonovi E, Taylor RS, et al. The cost-effectiveness of the Argus II retinal prosthesis in Retinitis Pigmentosa patients. BMC Ophthalmol. 2014;14(1):49. Weiland JD, Faraji B, Greenberg RJ, Humayun MS, Shellock FG. Assessment of MRI issues for the Argus II retinal prosthesis. Magn Reson Imaging. Apr 2012;30(3):382-389. Weitz AC, Behrend MR, Ahuja AK, et al. Interphase gap as a means to reduce electrical stimulation thresholds for epiretinal prostheses. J Neural Eng. Feb 2014;11(1):016007. Second Sight Medical Products, Inc. - June 15, 2016.